Tuesday, December 27, 2011

DRDO unveiled hi-tech complex for futuristic missile projects in Hyd

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is warming up to unravel a concrete masterpiece to house some of its discreet and critical missile technologies. Built just under four years, the new facility – the Navigation and Embedded Computer Complex -- was blessed by former President Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam on December 9. Situated close to the Shamshabad airport and Pahadi Shareef Dargah, the facility is set in a picturesque background of lakes, perfectly manicured lawns and offers a panoramic view of the hillocks.

Part of DRDO's Research Centre Imarat (RCI), the new Complex will develop navigation sensors like fibre-optic gyroscopes (FOGs), ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs), accelerometers (for accuracy requirements of long-range missiles), resonating gyros, star sensors – all pivotal to missile and military applications. An advanced very large scale integration (VLSI) and simulation lab for the design of integrated circuit and system on chip (SOC) is also being incorporated into the building.

While DRDO is tight-lipped in giving too many details about the Complex, defence sources confirm to Express that the facility will house gen-next clean rooms of the Class 10-10000 (parts per million particles) category. The Complex will also have a limited series production facility, with industry participation on government-owned company-operated basis, to manufacture some of the systems and components.

While technologically and design-wise the Complex is sure to outsmart many of DRDO establishments in India, the icing on the cake is a museum featuring navigation and computer equipment dating back to 100 years to the latest. This X-shaped installation with a tow, is tipped to play a lead tole in DRDO's current and futuristic tactical and strategic missile programmes.

Though the state-of-the-art facility will go fully live only in the next four months, it will be yet another fulfillment of Dr Kalam's dreams to be on par with world leaders in the art of making home-grown missiles. It was Dr Kalam who gave birth to RCI, when he launched the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) in the early 80s. The denial of technology stemming from the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) unleashed by the West, forced the lab to derive ways and means to develop FOGs (control grade and inertial grade) for missiles, tanks and aircraft, RLGs for long-range\long-endurance missiles and flight vehicles.

The 'Navigation & Embedded Computers Complex' which has been built over 14.5 acres within the premises of RCI, houses the most advanced design, fabrication & performance evaluation facilities required for the development of all classes of Navigation sensors & systems and real-time embedded systems.
The Inertial Navigation group of RCI, which will be relocating to this complex, has been involved in the design & development of highly critical inertial sensors like Ring Laser Gyroscopes (RLGs), Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs), Quartz Accelerometers, Hemispherical Resonating gyros (HRGs), etc which go into the Navigation systems of missiles, combat aircrafts, torpedoes, ships & submarines.

The Real-time Embedded computing Group of RCI has been developing the real-time computer systems for all DRDO products and is an expert group in state-of-art VLSI & System-on-Chip (SoC) technologies.

Dr. Kalam, during his address, expressed that his dream of RCI heading towards the Number 1 position in the field of Inertial sensors, Navigation systems & algorithms, etc is becoming a reality and emphasized the need to develop the Single chip Navigation, Guidance & control solution based on the System-on-chip technology.

The DRDO scientists confirm that this new advanced Navigation complex is on par with the best in the world and possesses all relevant infrastructures required for the system development and performance evaluation of the present & future Navigation requirements.

Dr. Kalam, the founder of RCI, also inaugurated the museum within the complex, which showcases the birth and evolution of the navigation & computing technologies of the world & DRDO, from ancient times to the present day.

The Scientific Advisor to Raksha Mantri & the Chief of DRDO Dr. V.K. Saraswat, congratulated the scientists on establishing the world class facility and wished RCI to emerge as the world leader in avionics. The Chief Controller R&D (Missiles & Stategic Systems) Shri. Avinash Chander, Director of RCI Shri. SK. Ray and many other Chief Controllers & top scientists of DRDO were present during the occasion.

Boeing's Apache Longbow Advanced Attack Helicopter For The Indian Air Force Combat Chopper tender

The Indian Air Force (IAF) has selected Boeing's Apache Longbow advanced attack helicopter for its combat chopper tender.

RIA Novosti news agency reported from Moscow Tuesday that the other competitor, Russia's Mi-28N Night Hunter, had lost the competition.
It quoted an unnamed Indian defence ministry source as saying that the US helicopter "showed better performance" while the Russian machine did not meet the tender requirements.

There was no confirmation here but well placed sources told India Strategic defence magazine that IAF's assessment report had been accepted. No details were given.

IAF has a tender for 22 combat helicopters with no options. But more would be required and should be ordered once the first few machines are delivered.
According to Lt Gen (retd) B.S. Pawar, a noted authority on combat helicopters, Apache is far more advanced than other attack helicopter worldwide. It has executed successful missions in Afghanistan. Notably, the US is known to have much better Electronic Warfare capability than perhaps any other nation.

The Apache has the capability to detect 256 moving targets in speed, distance and direction and engage them as required.

The twin-engine tandem seat Apache is operated by two pilots, and can execute an attack within 30 seconds of an alert.

It is equipped with Northrop Grumman's highly sophisticated millimeter wave Longbow fire control radar and Lockheed Martin's Hellfire and Raytheon's Stinger missiles. The Block III is the latest version being delivered to the US Army from this year.

Apache has a strong shell made of composite fibres to protect the pilots and sensitive components from bullets.

Read more: http://www.defencetalk.com

PM Congratulates Scientists on PSLV Launch

The Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh has congratulated the scientists and engineers of ISRO for the successful launch of three satellites by the PSLV - C16. The Prime Minister in his congratulatory message said that the flawless launch has yet again demonstrated ISRO's advanced capabilities in satellite development and launch vehicle technologies.
PM Congratulates Scientists on Successful Launch of PSLV C-16
PM Congratulates Scientists on Successful Launch of PSLV C-16
The text of the Prime Minister's message to the scientists is as follows:

"I am very happy to learn that the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)-C16 has today successfully launched India's RESOURCESAT-2 satellite, the joint Indo-Russian YOUTHSAT satellite, and Singapore's first satellite X-SAT.
The flawless launch of these three satellites has demonstrated yet again the advanced capabilities that the Indian Space Research Organisation has mastered in satellite development and launch vehicle technologies.
I commend ISRO for this achievement and its continuing service to the nation. I warmly congratulate the ISRO family and wish them all success in their future endeavors. 
About PSLV Programme:
PSLV-C16, is the eighteenth flight of ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV. In this flight, the standard version of PSLV with six solid strap-on motors is used.
PSLV-C16 will place three satellites with a total payload mass of 1404 kg - RESOURCESAT-2 weighing 1206 kg, the Indo-Russian YOUTHSAT weighing 92 kg and Singapore's X-SAT weighing 106 kg – into an 822 km polar Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO). PSLV-C16 will be launched from the First Launch Pad (FLP) at Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota.
The major changes made in PSLV since its first launch include changes in strap-on motors ignition sequence, increase in the propellant loading of the first stage and strap-on solid propellant motors as well as the second and fourth stage liquid propellant motors, improvement in the performance of the third stage motor by optimising motor case and enhanced propellant loading and employing a carbon composite payload adapter.
PSLV has also become a more versatile vehicle for launching multiple satellites in polar SSOs as well as Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). With sixteen successful launches, PSLV has emerged as the workhorse launch vehicle of ISRO and is offered for launching satellites for international customers also. During 1994-2010 period, PSLV has launched a total of 44 satellites, of which 25 satellites are from abroad and 19 are Indian satellites.-ISRO.

NATO And India Would Work Together For Improved Cyber Security

Faced with a common cyber security threat from Chinese hackers, NATO is eyeing India as an ally in securing its computers that hold sensitive information and data against malware and Trojan viruses.

With US already signing a cyber security collaboration pact with India this July, the 28-nation American-led political and military alliance is of the view that it can collaborate with the South Asian information technology superpower in protecting the cyber world, one of the global commons.
"You have one of the most advanced cyber industries in the world... and information technology industries. The issue of cyber security is one that affects the United States, NATO and India no matter whether we are aligned or non-aligned," a senior NATO official told IANS at the alliance's headquarters here.

"The cyber world doesn't recognise alignments. It only recognises switches and servers. As a result, we are in this cyber world together, whether we like it or not.

"We better figure out a way to cooperate, particularly since it does matter that you have a neighbour (country) next door, which is pretty much involved in cyber issues, even far away. Because in the cyber world, we are equally close," the official, who did not want to be identified because of the organisation's rules, said.

Although he did not name any of India's neighbours, it was clear he was referring to China, which is suspected of being behind spy software attacks on American, NATO, Indian and Tibetan computers in the last half-a-decade, stealing highly classified military and security data.

In 2009, an investigation by Information Warfare Monitor (IWM) comprising researchers from Ottawa-based think-tank, SecDev Group, and the Munk Centre for International Studies at the University of Toronto, had blamed a spy network of Chinese hackers, called GhostNet, to have breached the firewalls of computers of NATO and other countries, including that of Tibetan leader Dalai Lama.
Their 2010 report claimed that major Indian defence establishments, including the Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses, National Security Council Secretariat, National Maritime Foundation, and armed forces units were targeted and secret presentations on weapons systems stolen by Chinese hackers.

A cyber security report earlier this year had suggested that the worldwide web-based attacks in 2010 were up 93 per cent from 2009.

As recently as July this year, 'Anonymous' hackers had targeted NATO in a cyber attack.
Just a month ahead of the latest attack, NATO had decided to create a special task force to detect and respond to such attacks by beefing up its cyber defence capabilities.

Its 2010 summit in Lisbon too recognised the growing sophistication of cyber attacks and set policies for the alliance to cooperation with partner countries.

NATO has already spelt out its intention of having India as a political and military partner country, considering its growing stature as a regional power.


India May Cancel MMRCA Fighter Jet Competition

Victor Komardin, the deputy director of Russia’s arms export agency Rosoboronexport, contends that the two short-listed candidates for India’s Medium Multirole Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) competition have effectively ruled themselves out by putting too high a price on their fighters.

India’s politicians told the local press earlier this year that the MMRCA contract was a $10 billion deal, but reports from India in recent weeks say the manufacturers of the two finalist aircraft, the Eurofighter Typhoon and Dassault Rafale, are each asking for around $20 billion to fulfill the 126-aircraft order, Komardin says.

“Against the backdrop of the [financial] crisis [sweeping the world], it is hard to see how any government would allow such a waste of money, particularly when there are social problems” to deal with, Komardin says. “And there is no imminent threat to India’s [sovereignty]. My prediction is that this tender will be canceled.” Komardin spoke to Aviation Week on the sidelines of the LIMA Airshow in Langkawi, Malaysia.

India and Russia are close partners on defense. Rosoboronexport’s MiG-35 was on the long list for India’s MMRCA competition. Komardin says the MiG-35 was withdrawn from the competition before the short list was decided. If India issues a new tender, it creates an opportunity for Russia and the U.S. to rejoin the competition.


Friday, December 23, 2011

India's 5th Gen Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft

Evolutionary Technologies for India's 5th Generation 
Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft

Wind Tunnel Test Models

Conceptual Model

If the specialised team led by Indian aerospace scientist Dr AK Ghosh achieves what it has set out to (a huge IF, with all due respect), then one of the most dramatic aspects of India's concept fifth generation Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) will be its cockpit and man-machine interface. For starters, unlike the cluttered, resoundingly less-than-fourth-generation cockpit of the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA Tejas), the AMCA cockpit could have a panoramic active-matrix display. Next, switches, bezels and keypads could be replaced with touch screen inte
rfaces and voice commands. Finally, what the team wants is for the AMCA pilot to have a helmet-mounted display system that allows the jettisoning of a HUD from the AMCA cockpit altogether. Some pretty hardcore stuff. But the idea is this -- if India is building its own fifth generation fighter aircraft (not to be confused with the Indo-Russian FGFA/PAK-FA), and believes it can deliver, then aim for the damn stars. I've got my hands on AMCA documents that provide the first detailed view of just how ambitious the programme actually is. Let me run you through some of them.

The AMCA team has already asked private industry in the country to explore the feasibility of creating primary panoramic displays and other avionics displays that would befit a fifth generation cockpit environment. But the cockpit is just one of an ambitious official technology wishlist for the AMCA.

The envisaged changes begin at the very basic -- system architecture -- and look towards a triplex fly-b
y-light electro-optic architecture with fiber optic links for signal and data communications, unlike the electric links on the Tejas platform. And unlike centralized architecture on the Tejas, the AMCA proposes to sport a distributed architecture with smart sub-systems. Similarly, unlike the LCA's centralised digital flight control computer (DFCC), the AMCA could have a distributed system with smart remote units for data communication with sensors and actuators, a system that will necessitate much faster on-board processors.

Next come sensors. The mechanical gyros and accelerometers on the Tejas will need to evolve on the AMCA into fiber optic gyros, ring laser gyros and MEMS gyros. The pressure probes and vanes that make up the air-data sensors will evolve into an optical and flush air data system, and position sensors will be linear/rotary optical encoders. Significantly, actuators -- currently electro-hydraulic/direct drive -- could be electro-hydrostatic to accrue substantive weight savings on the AMCA. Sensor fusion for an overarching situation picture goes without saying.

The AMCA could feature highly evolved integrated control laws for flight, propulsion, braking, nose wheel steer and fuel management and adaptive neural networks for fault detection, identification and control law reconfiguration.

Unlike the Tejas, which features an avionics systems architecture based on functionality-based individual computer systems connected on MIL-STD-1553B buses and RS 422 links, the AMCA's avionics systems architecture will feature a central computational system connected internally and externally on an optic fiber channel by means of multiport connectivity switching modules. In such a system, functionality will be mapped on resourcred optimally and reallocated when faults occur. At least, that's the idea. Data communications on the AMCA's processing modules will be through a high-speed fiber channel bus, IEEE-1394B-STD. The connectivities will be switched by means of a multiport switching matrix, with data speeds of 400MB/second.

The AMCA could have integrated radio naviation systems, where all functions earlier done by analogue circuits will be shifted onto the shoulders of digital processors. Communication system will be based on software radio ranging from UHF to K band, with data links for digital data/voice data and video.

Algorithms will evolve substantially too. While the Tejas features almost no decision aid, the AMCA pilot could have at his command the ability to plan attack strategies, avoid strategies, retreat strategies and evasive strategies for himself and his buddies. Limited fault recording and limited coverage in the maintenance and diagnostics algorithms on the LCA will evolve into far more advanced ones allowing extensive coverage.

This is an official technology wishlist for the AMCA. If it sounds far-fetched and overreaching -- and it well may -- it still provides a glimpse into what the programme is looking at for what will undoubtedly be India's most ambitious indigenous aerospace venture. Before I forget, here's a nice little slide illustrating the AMCA's envisaged operational envelope.


Indians are the wealthiest among all ethnic groups in America, even faring better than the whites and the natives.
There are 3.22 million Indians in the USA (1.5% of population).
YET, 38% of doctors in USA are Indians.
12% scientists in USA are Indians.
36% of NASA scientists are Indians.
34% of Microsoft employees are Indians.
28% of IBM employees are Indians.
17% of INTEL scientists are Indians.
13% of XEROX employees are! Indians.


1. India never invaded any country in her last 1000 years of history.
2. India invented the Number system. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta.
3. The world's first University was established in Takshila in 700BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4 th century BC was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.
4. According to the Forbes magazine, Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software.
5. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans.
6. Although western media portray modern images of India as poverty-stricken and underdeveloped through political corruption, India was once the richest empire on earth.
7. The art of navigation was born in the river Sindh 5000 years ago. The very word "Navigation" is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH.
8. The value of pi was first calculated by Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is now known as the Pythagorean Theorem. British scholars have last year (1999) officially published that Budhayan's works dates to the 6 th Century which is long before the European mathematicians.
9. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11 th Century; the largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Indians used numbers as big as 10 53.
10. According to the Gemmological Institute of America, up until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds to the world.
11. USA based IEEE has proved what has been a century-old suspicion amongst academics that the pioneer of wireless communication was Professor Jagdeesh Bose and not Marconi.
12. The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra.
13. Chess was invented in India .
14. Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted surgeries like cesareans, cataract, fractures and urinary stones. Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient India .
15. When many cultures in the world were only nomadic forest-dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization).
16. The place value system, the decimal system was developed in India in 100 BC


Thursday, December 22, 2011

Adieu to Dr. P.K.Iyengar- 2nd man behind India's Non-Military, Scientists' driven nuclear Bomb

Padmanabhan Krishnagopalan Iyengar (29 June 1931 – 21 December 2011) was an eminent Indian nuclear scientist and a noted nuclear physicist who has known to be played a central role in India's cold fission tests. He was former head of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and former chairman of Atomic Energy Commission of India. 
After post-graduation in Physics from Kerala University, Iyengar started his career with the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in 1952. Three years later, he joined the then Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay and was soon deputed to the Chalk River Laboratories of the Canadian Atomic Energy Establishment.
After returning from Canada, Iyengar built a number of experimental facilities, including neutron diffractometers and neutron scattering spectrometers around research reactors Apsara and Cirus. He was also involved in the design and setting up of the first fast reactor critical facility Purnima-I, which achieved its first criticality on May 18, 1972.
Some of the other key positions he held included scientific adviser to Kerala government, member of board of the global technology development centre and president of the Indian Nuclear Society.

Career in Department of Atomic Energy

Iyengar was trained in Canada working under Nobel laureate in Physics Bertram Neville Brockhouse, contributing to path-breaking research on lattice dynamics in germanium. Iyengar joined the Department of Atomic Energy in 1952 as a Junior Research Scientist, undertaking a wide variety of research in neutron scattering. At the DAE, he built up and headed the team of physicists and chemists that gained international recognition for their original research contributions in this field. In 1960s, he indigenously designed the PURNIMA reactor and headed the team that successfully commissioned the reactor in 1972 at BARC.

Operation Smiling Buddha

In 1971 he was transferred to Bhabha Atomic Research Centre where he was appointed the director of Physics Group (PG). He was one of the key scientist in the development of India's first nuclear device. The team, under Raja Ramanna tested the device under the code name Smiling Buddha. In 1974, Iyengar played a leading role in the Peaceful Nuclear Explosion at Pokharan-I, for which he was conferred the Padma Bhushan in 1975.

Career with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

Iyengar took over as Director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1984. As Director, one of his first tasks was to take charge of the construction of the Dhruva reactor , the completion of which was then in question, and bring it to a successful conclusion under his leadership. Recognizing the importance of transferring newly developed technology from research institutes to industry, he introduced a Technology Transfer Cell at the BARC to assist and speed the process. He motivated basic research in fields ranging from molecular biology, to chemistry and material science. He nucleated new technologies like lasers and accelerators, which lead to the establishment of a new Centre for Advanced Technology, at Indore.

Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission of India

Iyengar was appointed Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India and Secretary to the Department of Atomic Energy in 1990. He was also appointed as Chairman of the Nuclear Power Corporation of India. Under his leadership the Department of Atomic Energy vigorously pursued the nuclear power programme with the commissioning of two new power reactors at Narora and Kakrapar, and continued with the development of new reactor systems, such as liquid-sodium based fast reactors. Equal emphasis was laid on enhanced production of heavy water, nuclear fuel and special nuclear materials. He also initiated proposals for the export of heavy-water, research reactors, hardware for nuclear applications to earn precious foreign exchange.

Legacy and Fame

Iyengar has been the recipient of many high civilian awards and honours. After retirement Iyengar has served in various positions such as Member of the Atomic Energy Commission, Scientific Advisor to the Government of Kerala, on the Board of the Global Technology Development Centre, President of the Indian Nuclear Society, and a Member of the Inter-governmental Indo-French Forum, besides serving on various national committees. Iyengar’s current interests focus on advances in nuclear technology for nuclear applications, issues of nuclear policy and national security, science education and the application of science in nation-building. He has participated in various international meetings on non-proliferation issues. Most recently, as a founder trustee of the Agastya International Foundation, he has been focusing on rural education and instilling creativity and scientific temperament in rural children.

Awards and honours

  • Padma Bhushan (1975)
  • Bhatnagar Award (1971)
  • Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Award for the Physical Sciences (1981)
  • Raman Centenary Medal of the Indian Academy of Science (1988)
  • Bhabha Medal for Experimental Physics of the Indian National Science Academy (1990)
  • R. D. Birla Award of the Indian Physics Association (1992)
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award (1993)
  • Homi Bhabha Medal (2006)

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

India's First Jet Engine Kaveri on Trials


The GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri is an afterburning turbofan being developed by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), a lab under the DRDO in Bangalore, India. An indigenous Indian design, the Kaveri was intended to power production models of the HAL Tejas fighter, originally called the "Light Combat Aircraft" (LCA), but it was officially de-linked from HAL Tejas program in September, 2008. Now GTRE is running two separate program for engine, the two different platforms are K9+ Program and the K 10 Program.


In 1986, the Indian Defence Ministry's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was authorized to launch a programme to develop an indigenous powerplant for the Light Combat Aircraft. It had already been decided early in the LCA programme to equip the prototype aircraft with the General Electric F404-GE-F2J3 afterburning turbofan engine, but if this parallel program was successful, it was intended to equip the production aircraft with this indigenous engine.
The DRDO assigned the lead development responsibility to its Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), which had some experience in developing jet engines. It had developed the GTX37-14U afterburning turbojet, which first ran in 1977, and was the first jet engine to be designed entirely in India. A turbofan derivative, the GTX37-14UB, followed. The GTRE returned to turbojet technology with the greatly redesigned, but unsatisfactory, GTX-35.
For the LCA programme, the GTRE would again take up a turbofan design which it designated the GTX-35VS "Kaveri" (named after the Kaveri River). Full-scale development was authorised in April 1989 in what was then expected to be a 93-month programme projected to cost INR382 crore (US$72.6 million). A new engine typically costs up to $2 billion to develop, according to engine industry executives. 


The original plans called for 17 prototype test engines to be built. The first test engine consisted of only the core module (named "Kabini"), while the third engine was the first example fitted with variable inlet guide vanes (IGV) on the first three compressor stages. The Kabini core engine first ran in March 1995. Test runs of the first complete prototype Kaveri began in 1996 and all five ground-test examples were in testing by 1998; the initial flight tests were planned for the end of 1999, with its first test flight in an LCA prototype to follow the next year. However, progress in the Kaveri development programme was slowed by both political and technical difficulties.
In 2002, little information had been publicly released concerning the nature of the Kaveri's technical challenges, but it was known that the Kaveri had a tendency to "throw" turbine blades, which required securing blades from SNECMA (as well as digital engine control systems). 
Continuing development snags with the Kaveri resulted in the 2003 decision to procure the uprated F404-GE-IN20 engine for the eight pre-production Limited Series Production (LSP) aircraft and two naval prototypes. The ADA awarded General Electric a US$105 million contract in February 2004 for development engineering and production of 17 F404-IN20 engines, delivery of which is to begin in 2006.
In mid-2004, the Kaveri failed its high-altitude tests in Russia, ending the last hopes of introducing it with the first production Tejas aircraft. This unfortunate development led the Indian Ministry of Defence (MoD) to order 40 more IN20 engines in 2005 for the first 20 production aircraft, and to openly appeal for international participation in completing development of the Kaveri. In February 2006, the ADA awarded a contract to SNECMA for technical assistance in working out the Kaveri's problems. 
In Dec. 2004, it was revealed that the GTRE had spent over INR1,300 crore (US$247 million) on developing the Kaveri. Furthermore, the Cabinet Committee on Security judged that the Kaveri would not be installed on the LCA before 2012, and revised its estimate for the projected total development cost to INR2,839 crore (US$539.4 million). 
In Feb. 2006, the US experts told pti that "Kaveri is truly a world-class engine." "We are ready to join in partnership with the Defence Research and Development Organisation to make Kaveri work," General William J Begert of Pratt and Whitney, told PTI. But DRDO secretary Natrajan told PTI that "But Kaveri is and would remain an Indian project." 
On February 5, 2007, Scientific Advisor to Defence Minister M Natarajan said nearly 90 to 93 per cent of the expected performance had been realised and the government had recently floated an expression of interest to seek partners to move the programme further. Till February 11, 2008, Kaveri had undergone 1,700 hours of tests and has been sent twice to Russia to undergo high-altitude tests for which India has no facility. The engine is also being tested to power the next generation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. 
In July 2007, GTRE divided Kaveri program into two separate programs. They are K9+ Program and K 10 Program. K9+ Program is a program to prove concept of complete design and gain hand-on experience of aircraft engine integration and flight trials to cover a defined truncated flight envelope prior to the launch of production version of K10 Standard engine. While K 10 Program is a Joint Venture (JV) partnership with a foreign engine manufacturer. K 10 program engine will be final production standard Kaveri engine and shall have less weight and more reheat thrust along with certain other changes to meet the original design intent. 
In September 2008, it was announced that the Kaveri would not be ready in time for the Tejas, and that an in-production powerplant would have to selected. Development of the Kaveri by the GTRE would continue for other future applications. It was announced in November 2008 that the Kaveri engine will be installed on LCA by December 2009, apparently for tests only. 
In February 2009, it was published in flightglobal that the GTRE had spent INR20 billion (US$380 million) in developing the Kaveri engine since 1989, but the powerplant is still overweight and does not have the 21,000-22,500 lb of thrust (93-100 kN) that its customer requires. Natarajan told Flightglobal that the programme will not be scrapped. "A team of air force engineers is working with GTRE and ADA in addressing the issues. As an ongoing project, the air force will be involved at the point of integrating the upgraded version of the engine with the aircraft," he told Flightglobal. "Discussions with Snecma have been going on for two years," he further adds. "Development and flight-testing of the new engine will take at least five to six years." 
In Dec 2009, Kaveri-Snecma JV was trying Back-door Entry In LCA. The People's Post reported that GTRE has agreed to de-link Kaveri from LCA, but has put in a proposal that when the first 40 GE 404 engines in the initial two squadrons of the LCA for the IAF, get phased out should be replaced by the Kaveri-Snecma engine, in future. 
On May 3, 2010, about 1880 hrs of engine test had been completed on various prototypes of Kaveri Engine. A total of eight Kaveri Engines and four core engines have been manufactured, assembled and tested. High Altitude testing on core engine has been completed successfully. 
In June 2010, the Kaveri engine based on Snecma’s new core, an uprated derivative of the M88-2 engine that powers the French Rafale fighter, providing 83-85 Kilonewtons (KN) of maximum thrust is being considered an option by DRDO. 
In July 2010, according to Vinayak shetty, Tejas aircraft will be Integrated with Kaveri engine and will be flying on board a Tejas Air frame by early 2011 or some time later in the year. 
A Press release in August 2010, stated that GTRE with the help of Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) of Russia is trying to match objective of fine tuning of Kaveri engine performance. Till August 2010, one major milestone which is altitude testing, simulating Kaveri engine performance at different altitude and achieving speed of Mach 1 had been completed successfully. One of Kaveri prototype (K9) was successfully flight tested at Gromov Flight Research Institute in Moscow, on 4 November 2010.
The test was conducted at the Flying Test Bed at Gromov, with the engine running right from the take-off to landing, flying for a period of over one hour up to an altitude of 6,000 metres. The engine helped the IL-76 aircraft test bed fly at speeds of 0.6 mach in its maiden flight, according to the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
"The engine control, performance and health during the flight were found to be excellent. With this test, Kaveri engine has completed a major milestone of development programme," it added. After completing these milestone Kaveri engine is flight-worthy. The Kaveri engine was tested for the first time on a flying testbed and the trials were a success. 
Till April 2011, the first phase of Kaveri engine FTB trials have been completed successfully and further tests will continue from May 2011 onwards. The flight tests successfully carried out so far are up to 12 km maximum altitude and a maximum forward speed of 0.7 Mach No. 
In its annual report for 2010-11, The Comptroller and Auditor General of India noted that INR1,892 crore (US$359.5 million) had been spent on development, with only two out of the six milestones prescribed having being met. Among its deficiencies, CAG says the engine weight was higher than the design specifications (1235 kg against 1100 kg) and there was no progress on developing the compressor, turbine and engine control systems.
On Dec 21 2011, "9 prototypes of Kaveri engines and 4 prototypes of Kabini (Core) engines have been developed" told Defence Minister Shri AK Antony in Rajya Sabha. Further on, 2050 hours of test flight of engines has been taken place so far. 27 flights for 55 hours duration have been completed on testbed IL-76 aircraft as well as 12 km maximum forward altitude and a maximum forward speed of 0.7 Mach No had been recorded. 
The Kaveri program has attracted much criticism due to its ambitious objective, protracted development time, cost overruns, and the DRDO's lack of clarity and openness in admitting problems. Much of the criticism of the LCA program has been aimed at the Kaveri and Multi-Mode Radar programs. There has been much criticism of the degree of realism in the DRDO's planning schedules for various elements of the LCA programme, most particularly for the Kaveri development effort. France's SNECMA, with over half a century of successful jet engine development experience, took nearly 13 years to bring the Rafale fighter's M88 engine to low-volume production after bench testing had begun; a similar timespan for the less-experienced GTRE would see Kaveri production beginning no earlier than 2009. Another criticism has been DRDO's reluctance to admit problems in the engine and its resistance to involve foreign engine manufacturers until the problems became too large to handle.
In August 2010, regarding the reasons for delay, a Ministry of Defence press release reported: 
  1. "Ab-initio development of state-of-the-art gas turbine technologies.
  2. Technical/technological complexities.
  3. Lack of availability of critical equipment & materials and denial of technologies by the technologically advanced countries.
  4. Lack of availability of test facilities in the country necessitating testing abroad.
  5. Non availability of skilled/technically specialized manpower."


The Kaveri is a low-bypass-ratio (BPR) afterburning turbofan engine featuring a six-stage core high-pressure (HP) compressor with variable inlet guide vanes (IGVs), a three-stage low-pressure (LP) compressor with transonic blading, an annular combustion chamber, and cooled single-stage HP and LP turbines. The development model is fitted with an advanced convergent-divergent ("con-di") variable nozzle, but the GTRE hopes to fit production Tejas aircraft with an axisymmetric, multi-axis thrust-vectoring nozzleto further enhance the LCA's agility. The core Turbojet engine of the Kaveri is the Kabini.
The general arrangement of the Kaveri is very similar to other contemporary combat engines, such as the Eurojet EJ200, General Electric F414, and Snecma M88. At present, the peak turbine inlet temperature is designed to be a little lower than its peers, but this is to enable the engine to be flat-rated to very high ambient temperatures. Consequently, the bypass ratio that can be supported, even with a modest fan pressure ratio, is only about 0.16:1, which means the engine is a "'leaky' turbojet" like the F404.
The Kaveri engine has been specifically designed for the demanding Indian operating environment, which ranges from hot desert to the highest mountain range in the world. The GTRE's design envisions achieving a fan pressure ratio of 4:1 and an overall pressure ratio of 27:1, which it believes will permit the Tejas to "supercruise" (cruise supersonically without the use of the afterburner). The Kaveri is a variable-cycle, flat-rated engine and has 13% higher thrust than the General Electric F404-GE-F2J3 engines equipping the LCA prototypes.
Plans also already exist for derivatives of the Kaveri, including a non-afterburning version for an advanced jet trainer, and a high-bypass-ratio turbofan based on the Kabinicore. Another concept being considered is an enlarged version of the Tejas with two engines fitted with fully vectoring nozzles, which might make the vertical tail redundant (the Tejas has no horizontal tail). 
An indigenous Full-Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) unit, called Kaveri Digital Engine Control Unit (KADECU) has been developed by the Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE), Bangalore. The Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) of Avadi was responsible for the design and development of the Tejas aircraft-mounted accessory gear box (AMAGB) and the power take-off (PTO) shaft.

Current status

The DRDO currently hopes to have the Kaveri engine ready for use on the Tejas in the latter half of the 2010s decade and according to latest news still research on it is going on and date to complete its research has been extended to 2011-2012. 
“In recent times, the engine has been able to produce thrust of 82 Kilo Newton but what the IAF and other stake-holders desire is power between 90—95 KN" , senior officials told The Hindu. "On using the Kaveri for the LCA, they said the engine would be fitted on the first 40 LCAs to be supplied to the IAF when they come for upgrades to the DRDO in the latter half of the decade." Article further adds that in 2011,50-60 test flights will be carried out to mature the engine in terms of reliability, safety and airworthiness.


Plans are also already under way for derivatives of the Kaveri, including a non-afterburning version for an advanced jet trainer and a high-bypass-ratio turbofan based on theKaveri core, named as Kabini. 
  • GTX-35VS Kaveri:
    • HAL Tejas (planned for production models)
      • Kaveri Engine for LCA
        • Name of the Project / Programme -- Kaveri Engine for LCA
        • Date of Sanction—30 Mar 1989
        • Original Probable Date of Completion (PDC) -- 31 Dec 1996
        • Revised PDC—31 Dec 2010
        • Technologies / Products developed and status of Projects / Programmes on 3 May 2010—About 1880 hrs on engine test has been completed on various prototypes of Kaveri Engine. A total of eight Kaveri Engines and four core engines have been manufactured, assembled and tested. High Altitude testing on core engine has been completed successfully.
    • HAL Medium Combat Aircraft (conceptual)
    • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
  • Derivatives:
    • The Indian government plans to adapt and further develop the Kaveri engine design and technology to create a gas-turbine powerplant for armoured fighting vehiclessuch as the Arjun tank.
    • Kaveri Marine Gas Turbine (KMGT), a recently developed derivative of the GTX-35VS Kaveri engine for ships. 
    • Indian Railways has expressed interest in utilizing Kaveri to power locomotives 

Specification (GTX-35VS Kaveri)

General characteristics

  • Type: Afterburning turbofan
  • Length: 137.4 in (3490 mm)
  • Diameter: 35.8 in (910 mm)
  • Dry weight: 2,427 lb (1,100 kg) [Production model goal: 2,100 lb (950 kg)]


  • Compressors: two-spool, with low-pressure (LP) and high-pressure (HP) axial compressors:
    • LP compressor with 3 fan stages and transonic blading
    • HP compressor with 6 stages, including variable inlet guide vanes and first two stators
  • Combustors: annular, with dump diffuser and air-blast fuel atomisers
  • Turbines: 1 LP stage and 1 HP stage


  • Maximum thrust:
    • Military thrust (throttled):11,687 lbf (52.0 kN)
    • Full afterburner:18,210 lbf (81.0 kN)
    • Specific fuel consumption:
    • Military thrust: 0.78 lb/(lbf•h) (79.52 kg/(kN·h))
    • Full afterburner: 2.03 lb/(lbf•h) (207.00 kg/(kN·h))
    • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 7.8:1 (76.0 N/kg)

Engine cycle

  • Airflow: 172 lb/s (78.0 kg/s)
  • Bypass ratio: 0.16:1
  • Overall pressure ratio: 21.5:1 [Goal: 27:1]
  • LP compressor pressure ratio: 3.4:1 [Goal: 4:1]
  • HP compressor pressure ratio: 6.4:1
  • Turbine entry temperature: 2,218-2,601 °F (1,214-1,427 °C; 1,487-1,700 K) [Goal: 3,357 °F (1,847 °C; 2,120 K)]